The vertebrae that make up our spine are arranged in a specific order on top of each other. Normally, the front and back edges of the vertebrae are aligned with the edges of the upper and lower vertebrae. The vertebrae are connected to each other through discs in the front and facet joints in the back. Many ligament structures also bridge the bones between them, increasing the durability of this arrangement. In the condition known as spinal slippage, one vertebra usually moves forward over another. As a result of this movement, the spinal cord passing through the spine is compressed, causing symptoms such as pain, numbness, and burning in both legs. There are five types of spinal slippage. The most common ones being those caused by degeneration in old age, those that develop after surgery, and those caused by congenital problems in childhood vertebrae. These fractures are called spondylolysis.
In approximately 5% of people, there may be a developmental fracture in the bone that connects the upper and lower joints of the vertebrae in the lower part of the lumbar region (facet joints). These fractures are called ‘’spondylolysis’’. Fractures that occur in this region due to its high mobility may often not heal. However, these fractures usually cause pain in adolescence but may not cause serious problems in adulthood. In some patients, the fracture may cause the upper vertebrae to shift forward compared to the lower spine.
his condition is also called “spondylolisthesis” or “vertebral slip.” Spondilolistezis can lead to more serious problems depending on the amount of slippage. Spondylolisthesis, caused by this type of fracture, is referred to as “isthmic spondylolisthesis” in medical terminology.
Another type of curvature of the spine occurs due to aging and wear and tear on the spine and surrounding connective tissues. This problem, which typically occurs after the age of 40, is referred to as “degenerative spondylolisthesis.” Narrow canal is usually associated with degenerative curvature of the spine.
Typically, the first symptom of curvature of the spine is back pain. It can be followed by complaints of numbness, muscle tension, weakness, increased curvature of the spine, or difficulty walking in the legs. Although these symptoms can be temporarily relieved by rest, pain usually increases with standing, walking, and other activities.
Stress fractures (spondylolysis) may not always produce clinical symptoms. They can sometimes be discovered incidentally on spinal x-rays taken for other reasons. If the pathology becomes symptomatic, the first complaint is usually pain in the lower back. Curvature of the spines may also be asymptomatic even years after the slip has occurred. Symptoms include lower back and hip pain; numbness, pain, muscle tension, weakness, increased lumbar inclination or difficulty in walking. Although these symptoms may be temporarily relieved with rest, the pain usually increases with standing, walking and other activities.
SYMPTOMS OF Spondylolisthesis
In some cases, people with spinal slippage may not show any symptoms. However, for those who do, symptoms may include pain in the lower back and hips that increases when bending forward and decreases when bending backward.
- Pain that worsens with walking and numbness in the legs
- Leg cramps in the evenings, difficulty moving
- Weakness in the legs
- Excessive sensitivity in the sliding spinal region may also occuR
1) Congenital Problems
The most common cause of spondylolisthesis in children is congenital anatomical problems or problems experienced during birth.
2) Bone Diseases
The cause of low spondylolisthesis in adults is often joint inflammation, bone and cartilage tissue diseases such as calcification.
3) Receive a Blow
A blow to the waist or movements that strain the spine can cause a slipped back. Examples of these reasons are as follows:
- Challenging sports such as gymnastics, football or bodybuilding
- Uncontrolled falls on the hip
- Working in a physical labour-based job with requirements such as heavy lifting
- Because of these factors, athletes, football referees and acrobats often suffer from slipped backs.
4) Other causes
The following factors can also cause to spondylolisthesis in the long term:
- Constant stress fractures on the vertebrae due to running, light impact, etc.
- Bone tumours occurring around the vertebrae
- Weakening of muscles and connective tissues due to old age